Living cell and understanding of its biochemical functions
Origin of biochemistry and its relationship with other sciences, biochemical explanation of living things, the
elements of life, chemical elements present in living organisms, organic compounds found in living cells,
water: the solvent for life, cell biomembranes- structure and functions
Macromolecules and biomolecules of living cells
Introduction, functions, classification, structure, important properties of: carbohydrates, amino acids,
proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
Enzymes: nomenclature, classification, functions of enzymes, co-enzymes, cofactor and isozymes, enzyme
kinetics, factors affecting regulation of enzymes
Microbial metabolism
Concept of exergonic and endergonic reactions, heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism, role of ATP
intermediary metabolism, heterotrophic generation of ATP in various pathways of carbohydrate metabolism,
lipid metabolism, protein metabolism
Microbial genetics
Structure, types and functions of DNA and RNA, replication of DNA, transcription and translation, regulation
of gene expressions, lac operon, genetic code.

Concept of biotechnology
Definition and history, scope and importance, risk and hazards of biotechnology
Fermentation process
Introduction, solid state fermentation, submerged state fermentation, fermentation industries, beer,
ethanol, acetic acids, fermentor designs
Agricultural microbial biotechnology
Introduction, biofertilizer and composting, plant tissue culture, micropropagation and disease free plants,
general concept of cell fusion and embryo transfer
Biotechnology in diary industry
Milk and milk products: cheese, yoghurt, ice-cream production, sour milk, skimmed milk, dry powder milk,
pasteurization process of milk
Methods in genetic engineering
Introduction, outline of gene cloning, gene cloning procedure, vectors used in recombinant DNA technology,
applications and possible hazards of genetic engineering
Enzyme technology
Introduction, source of enzymes, selection of source of enzymes, advantage of microbial enzymes,
production and purification of protease, amylase, chitinase and pectinase.