Unit 1: Limnology
Concept, importance, scope, its relationship with other disciplines and history of limnological study
with focus to Nepal; Wetlands: Concept, types, roles, threats and conservation; Freshwater
environment: Definition, types and limiting factors, morphometry of freshwater bodies, physico-chemical properties of freshwater, ecological classification of freshwater organisms; Freshwater
biodiversity: Microbes, macrophytes, macro-invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and
mammals; Physico-chemical and biological water quality index; Comparative study of lentic and lotic
environment; Ecological, economic and cultural importance of freshwater environment; Land-water
interactions; Impacts of dam on lacustrine and riverine ecosystems; Freshwater habitat degradation,
fragmentation and loss; Protecting, sustaining and restoring of freshwater environment.
Unit 2: Hydrology
Hydrological cycle: Phases, interaction with ground water and surface water, stocks and fluxes in the
global cycle; Precipitation: Forms of precipitation, effective precipitation; Analysis and interpretation
of rainfall data; Snow hydrology: Snowfall and measurement, properties; Metamorphism, sublimation
and deposition; Movement of water through snow, water quality aspects of snow; Introduction to
glaciers, remote sensing in snow hydrology study; Infiltration: Infiltration process, factors affecting infiltration capacity; Estimation by hydrologic budget, Horton‟s, Kostiakov‟s, Darcy‟s and Philip
equation methods; Evaporation and evapotranspiration: Factors affecting evaporation and
evapotranspiration, control of evaporation and evapotranspiration; Estimation of evapotranspiration
by Blaney-Criddle, Thornthwaite and Penman‟s methods; Stream flow: Components of runoff,
factors affecting runoff, environmental effects of surface runoff and their mitigation; Introduction to
stream simulation model; Hydrological prediction: probability of hydrologic event, distribution
functions; Frequency analysis, analysis of hydrologic time series, reconstruction of hydrologic data;
Flood forecast technique, extreme flood event estimation method; Ground water: zonation and
occurrence of ground water; Aquifer parameters, Darcy‟s law; Ground water level and environmental
influences; Hydro-geological investigation; Ground water quality.
Unit 3: Climatology
Climatology: Definition, scope and types; Concepts of weather and climate, insolation and heat
budget; Characteristics of atmosphere; Features of monsoon; Jet stream: temperature, pressure and
wind field, types and location, importance in Nepalese ecology, agro climatology, urban climatology,
aviation climatology, environmental and economic importance of the monsoon; Classification of
climate: objectives of the classification, basis of the classification, Koppen‟s classification,
Thornthwaite classification, climates of Nepal, climatic pattern, spatial and temporal patterns of
climatic parameters in Nepal, rainfall and temperature variation with east-west, north-south,
intraregional variations in Nepal, Climate types: tropical climate, temperate climate, highland climate,
tundra climate, ice caps climate; Forecast: Long and short range weather forecast; Dendro-climatology and its techniques to reconstruction of past climatic environment, case study examples of
Unit 4: Environmental Geology and Environmental Survey
Introduction to environmental geology and its concepts; Human modification of nature; Geological
criteria of land use planning and decision making for waste disposal and infrastructural
developments: roads, tunnels, bridges and foundation; Dams and reservoirs: Geotechnical
consideration and environmental impacts; Land capability mapping; Instability of hill slopes and
landslides; Geological aspects of environmental health: Trace elements and human health, chronic
diseases and geologic environment; Physiographic, geomorphic and tectonic division of Nepal
Himalaya and major hazards associated with these zones, mitigation measures.
Environmental survey: Definition and concept, objective, importance and scope; Introduction and
types of map, topographical and geological maps; Topographic surveying: Concepts, inventory and
mapping, methods of topographic surveying, methods of representing relief; Contours: concepts and
characteristics, methods of locating and interpolation; Concept and application of Remote Sensing
(RS), RS and uses of aerial photographs; Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning
System (GPS) in relation to environmental monitoring; Methods of resources surveying: land, water, forests, mines.

Unit 5: Environmental Microbiology
Concept and historical development of environmental microbiology; Major microbes: Viruses,
bacteria, cynobacteria, actinomycetes, protozoans, fungi, and algae; Factors affecting the growth of
microorganisms; Distribution of microorganisms: Air, water, soil and food; Microbial interaction in
environment; Techniques used for the estimation of microbial population; Application of microbes in
Unit 6: Agriculture and Biotechnology
Introduction and types of agriculture; Agricultural practices in Nepal: conventional and modern
agriculture, environmental consequences; Participatory approach of modern agriculture; Sustainable
agriculture: agro-ecological practices; Pesticides: first and second generation; Agrochemical
pollution; Integrated Pest Management (IPM); Alternative method of pesticides uses; Sustainable Soil
Management (SSM); Land reform; Agricultural policy in Nepal; Impact of globalization in
Sustainable soil management techniques; SSMP in mid-hills of Nepal; Farmer to farmer diffusion
model, strength, challenges & opportunities of F-F; Soil conservation and watershed management
modules: low cost soil and water conservation, integrated soil conservation, watershed management
activities, strategies and promotion scale up;
Biotechnology: Introduction, principles and concepts; Detoxification of environmental pollutants;
Degradation of high concentrated toxic pollutants: Halogenated, non-halogenated, petroleum,
hydrocarbons, metals; Biotransformation of metals, biodegradation of solid wastes; Microbial
technology for waste treatment: biotechnological remedies for environmental pollution;
Decontamination of groundwater systems, subsurface environment, reclamation and bioremediation
concepts; Production of proteins; Biofertilizers; Composting and vermi-composting; Biogas
technology; Genetic application: concept of DNA technology, construction of microbial strains,
protoplast fusion technology, applications; Ex-situ conservation: Seed bank, gene bank, tissue
culture; Environmental effects, safety and ethics.