Unit I. Angiosperm
2. Plant morphology in relation to taxonomy
3. Plant collection and Herbarium techniques
4. Nomenclature and Classification
5. Principles of classification
6. Major classification systems of angiosperms with merits and demerits
7. Phylogenetic system
8. Contemporary system
9. Basic concept of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
10. Systematic Study
Unit II. Plant Physiology
- Water Relations of Plants: Water availability in soil; water potential; movement of water:
diffusion, osmosis; transport of water in plants: absorption by roots, root to shoot transport,
transpiration (mechanism and factors affecting transpiration), cohesion-tension theory of ascent of
sap; water stress: effects and plants‟ response.
- Plant Nutrients: Nutrient availability in soil; nutrient absorption by root; macro and
micronutrients: roles in plant and symptoms of deficiencies; hydroponics.
- Plant Development: Growth and differentiation; Tissue culture and organogenesis; Polarity;
Photomorphogenesis; Photoperiodism; Seed physiology: Seed germination and mobilization of
reserved food, seed dormancy, vernalization; senescence.
- Plant Hormones: Concept of hormone; physiological roles of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinnins,
ethylene, abscissic acid, and brassinosteroids; commercial uses of plant hormones.
- Metabolism: Anabolism and Catabolism; Photosynthesis: Radiant energy, ultrastructure of
chloroplast, photosynthetic pigments, mechanisms (light reaction, and dark reaction/CO2
assimilation – C3, C4 and CAM), factors affecting photosynthesis; photorespiration; respiration:
ultrastructure of mitochondria, anaerobic and aerobic respiration, glycolysis, Kreb‟s cycle,
respiratory chain; chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis.
Unit III. Cytology and Genetics
- Cytology: structural organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Ultrastructure and function
of cell organelles; cell inclusions; physical and chemical nature of chromosomes; cell division:
cell cycle, karyokinesis (amitosis, mitosis and meiosis) and cytokinesis.
- Genetics: Physical structure, type and functions of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); DNA
replication; gene structure, gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Mendelian genetics: Mendel‟s laws of inheritance, gene interactions (incomplete dominance, codominance, epistasis), linkage and crossing over, sex linked inheritance. Sources of genetic
variation: gene and chromosomal mutation (chromosomal aberrations, euploidy, aneuploidy and
polyploidy). Concept of plant breeding (hybridization).
Unit IV. Embryology
- Structure and development of microsporangium, microsporogenesis and the male gametophyte;
structure and development of megasporangium, megasporogenesis and the female gametophyte;
pollination and fertilization; development and types of endosperm; embryogenesis in typical dicot
and monocot plants; polyembryony; apomixes; experimental embryology; palynology:
introduction and its scope.
Unit V. Plant anatomy
- Tissues and tissue system: structure and functions of meristematic and permanent tissues (simple,
complex and special tissues); shoot apical meristem (histological organizations in monocot and
dicot stem); root apical meristem (histological organization in monocot and dicot root); theories
of apical meristem differentiation.
- Primary structures and functions: epidermis: uniseriate and multiseriate, epidermal appendages
and their morphological types; primary structure of typical dicot stem, root and leaf; primary
structure of typical monocot stem, root and leaf; cambium: origin, structure and functions.
- Secondary structures and functions: Origin and structure of secondary xylem and phloem;
secondary growth in dicot stem and root; anomalous secondary growth (dicot- Boerhaavia,
Nyctanthes and Achyranthes; monocot- Dracaena); annual and growth rings; dendrochronology
(concept and application); heart wood and sapwood; periderm; wound healing; leaf abscission;
nodal anatomy; floral anatomy.