Unit 1: Introduction to Environmental Science

Environmental Science: Concept of environment and environmental science, historical development,
objective, scope and importance, its relation to other disciplines of science; Multidisciplinary nature
of environmental sciences; Environmental issues in Nepal and role of environmental science, state of
environmental awareness; Historical and philosophical basis: the interconnectedness of lithosphere,
hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Relationship between society and environment; Concept of culture and human civilization; Historical
development of society and culture: Hunting and gathering, pastoral, agrarian, and industrial society
and environment; Mode of production, resource utilization and environment; Population growth and4th year B.Sc.
environmental degradation; Use of sociological and anthropological knowledge on environment
conservation; Environmental worldviews and ethics, developed countries, developing countries,

Unit 2: Population and Community Analysis

Ecology: Concept, history, scope, types, ecological hierarchy; Biosphere: Evolution, realms;
Ecosystem: components and factors, life supporting systems, concept of food chain, food web,
trophic structure, ecological pyramids; Concept of limiting factors; Liebig-Blackman law; Shelford‟s
law of tolerance.
Population characteristics: Size and density, pattern of dispersion, age structure, natality, mortality,
biotic potential; Population dynamics and theory of population growth; Rate of natural increase;
Species interaction: Positive and negative; Regulation of population size.
Community characteristics: Classification and composition; Characters used in community structure:
Analytical and synthetics; Concept of ecological dominance; Habitat and niche; Ecological
indicators; Keystone species; Ecotone and edge effect; Heterogeneity and equitability; Adaptation:
Origin and significance; Ecads; Ecotypes; Ecocline; Speciation and extinction.

Unit 3: Ecosystem Dynamics
Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems: Structural and functional aspects of forest, grassland, deserts,
lentic and lotic environment; Energy sources for ecosystem dynamics; P/R ratio; Ecological
efficiency; Energy flow model- simple and Y-shaped model; Application of thermodynamic laws in
ecosystems; Productivity and its types; Methods of measuring primary and secondary productivity;
Global primary productivity; Biogeochemical cycles: Hydrological, gaseous (oxygen, nitrogen and
carbon) and sedimentary (sulphur and phosphorus); Ecological stability: Carrying capacity,
persistence, constancy, resilience; Homeostasis and feedback mechanism; Ecosystem regulation;
Ecological succession and climax community; Human impacts on ecosystem.

Unit 4: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Analytical techniques; Volumetric and gravimetric analysis; Potentiometric titration;
Conductometric titration; Colorimetric/spectrophotometric analysis; Errors and statistical methods in
chemical analysis; Atmospheric Chemistry: Characteristics of the atmosphere; Atmospheric processes
and reaction of gases and particulates; Chemistry in ozone depletion; Chemical reactions of global
warming; Chemistry of aquatic media: Water in the Environment; Characteristics of water bodies;
Major aquatic chemical processes, structure and property of water, solubility; Acid base reactions:
general behavior, carbonic acid, pH and solubility; Oxidation-reduction processes; Soil chemistry:
Basic concept of colloidal chemistry; Ion exchange reaction in soil; Pesticides: classification,
environmental contamination and fate of pesticides in soil.4th year B.Sc.

Unit 5: Atmospheric Environment
Origin, composition and structure of the atmosphere; Meteorological fundamentals: Radiation and
heat budget, temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, water vapour, clouds, fog, precipitation;
Atmospheric stability; Adiabatic diagrams-slide and parcel method; Turbulence and diffusion; Scales
of meteorology; Application of micro-meteorology to vegetated surfaces, urban areas, human beings,
animals and airport; Application of meteorological principal to transport and diffusion of pollutants;
Scavenging process; Effects of meteorological parameters on pollutants and vice versa; Wind roses;
Temperature inversion; Lapse rate; Concept of weather and climate, Weather forecasting; Climate
change: Introduction and impacts; Greenhouse effect; Atmospheric circulation; Weather and seasons;
Monsoon; Extreme weather events: Thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes and El Nino/ ENSO.

Unit 6: Environmental Earth Science
Relationship between geology and environmental science; Conceptual framework of earth as a closed
system; Introduction to geological time scale; Mountain building process; Internal structure of earth;
Earth materials (rocks and minerals): Classification, types, composition, formation and abundance;
Earth processes: Endogenic and exogenic; Tectonism; Volcanism; Earthquake; Geological agents of
change: Wind, water and ice; Landslide and mass wasting.
Soil Science: Concept and relation with environment; Chemical and mineralogical composition of
soil; Process and factors affecting soil genesis; Properties of soil: Physical, chemical and biological;
Humus: Nature, properties and formation; Soil profile and types; Soil types of Nepal.