Unit 1. Introduction

  1. Classification of living organisms: Introduction; History of Classification (Aristotle;
    Theophrastus; Dioscorides; Pliny the Elder; John Ray; Carolus Linnaeus); Basis for
    classification; Classification type (Artificial and Natural); Hierarchical classification of living
    things (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
    Species). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
  2. Two-Kingdom system: Two-Kingdom System by Linnaeus (Plantae and Animalia); Limitations
    of the Two-Kingdom System; Three-Kingdom System (Haeckel 1866); The Copeland FourKingdom System (Monera, Protista, Plantae and Animalia); Limitations of the Copeland
    System ……………………………………………………………………………………….2
  3. Five-Kingdom system (Whittaker 1969): Characteristics of the Five-Kingdom System; Monera
    (Archaebacteria and Eubacteria); Protoctista/Protista (Chrysophytes, Dinoflagellates,
    Euglenoids, Slime Moulds, Protozoans); Fungi (Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes,
    Deuteromycetes); Plantae (Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms);
    Animalia (Viruses, Viroids and Lichen); Concept of Six- Kingdoms (Archaebacteria,
    Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae,
    Animalia)………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

Unit 2. Kingdom: Monera

  1. General characteristics: Features of Bacteria; Morphology; Cell structure (capsule, cell wall,
    cell membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material, ribosomes, inclusion bodies,
    flagella) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
  2. Classification up to class (Whittaker1969)…………………………………………………………….. 1
  3. Reproduction (Binary fission; Spore formation; Transformation; Conjugation and
    Transduction)……………………………………………………………………………………………..1
  4. Economic importance bacteria: Beneficial activities: Genetic engineering; Bacteria and Soil
    fertility; Bacterial metabolism-its commercial importance; Bacteria as human symbionts;
    Harmful effects: Spoilage of food stuff; Causes of animal diseases; Causes of human diseases;
    Causes of plant diseases………………………………………………………….. 1
    Oscillatoria (Cyanobacteria)
    General characteristics: General features; Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus);
    Occurrence; Structure of the thallus. Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction (Fragmentation); Asexual
    reproduction (Hormogonia formation, Akinete or resting spore). Economic importance. Life cycle:
    Diagrammatic representation…………………………………………………………………………..1
    Spirulina (Cyanobacteria)
    General characteristics: General features; Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus);
    Occurrence; Structure of the thallus; Cell structure. Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction (Binary fission);
    Asexual reproduction (Hormogonia formation). Economic importance. Life cycle: Diagrammatic
    representation ………………………. 1

Unit 3.A. Kingdom: Fungi (Mycota)

  1. Introduction of fungi: General features (Distribution of fungi; Cell structure; Habitat and Habitat [Aquatic,
    Terrestrial, Parasitic (Ectoparasite, Endoparasite): Obligate, Facultative; Saprophytic: Obligate,
    Facultative; Symbiosis)]; Somatic structure (Unicellular; Filamentous: Aseptate, Septate); Aggregation and
    modification of hyphae: i) Plectenchyma [a) Prosenchyma b) Pseudoparenchyma], ii) Rhizomorph iii)
    Stroma iv) Sclerotium v) Appressorium vi) Haustorium)…………………………………………1
  2. Nutrition in fungi: i) Nutritional requirements ii) Essential elements iii) Reserve food; Growth factors:
    Temperature, light, moisture. Reproduction: a) Vegetative reproduction (Fragmentation & Budding); b)4th year B.Sc. syallabus-2073 revised Page 6
    Asexual reproduction (Conidia, Zoospores, Spores, Chlamydospores, Oidiospores); c) Sexual reproduction
    [Planogametic copulation, Gametangial contact (gametangiogamy), Gametangial copulation,
    Spermatization, Somatogamy]……………………………………………………………………………………………………1
  3. Classification of fungi: A natural system of classification of fungi as proposed by G.C. Anisworth (1973)
    (Kingdom, Division, Sub-division, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
    Species)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
    Albugo candida (Cystopus)
    General features, Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Somatic structure.
    Reproduction: Vegetative (fragmentation); Asexual reproduction (conidia formation) and Sexual
    reproduction (Oogamous type). Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation. Economic importance: ‘White rust
    disease’, Symptoms of diseases, Control measure (Chemical method; Biological method; Agriculture
    method) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    Aspergillus (Eurotium )
    General features; Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Somatic structure.
    Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction (fragmentation); Asexual reproduction (conidia formation); Sexual
    reproduction (Formation of antheridia and archicarps; Fertilization, Cleistothecium/Ascocarp formation
    [closed fruiting body]; Ascus; Ascospores. Life cycle: (Haplophase, Dikaryophase, Diplophase) Diagrammatic
    representation. Economic importance: Useful activities: Destruction of organic waste; Industrial mycology;
    Bio-assays; Antibiotics; Vitamins; Therapeutic uses; Enzymes; Fat production; etc. Harmful effects: Spoilage
    of food; Tropical deterioration;
    Mycoses; ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
    Peziza (Sac fungi)
    General features; Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Somatic structure.
    Reproduction: Asexual reproduction (conidia formation); Sexual reproduction (Somatogamy, Ascogenous
    hyphae, Crozier formation, Karyogamy, Ascus, Ascospores, Apothecium (fruiting body). Structure of
    apothecium (Hymenium, Hypothecium, Excipulum). Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation. Economic
    importance ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
    Agaricus or psalliota (Club fungi)
    General features; Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Somatic structure
    (monokaryotic and dikaryotic mycelium). Reproduction: Asexual reproduction (chlamydospores, oidia);
    Sexual reproduction (Somatogamy; Development of sporophores (Fructification); Basidiocarp (Mature
    fructification); Basidiospores). Structure of Basidiocarp (Stipe, Pileus, Gills); Liberation and germination of the
    basidiospores. Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation. Economic importance: Useful activites: Sources of
    food, decomposition of dead bodies, wastes materials, Ink, etc. Harmful effects: Wood rotters; Poisonous
    mushroom; Antibiotics; Mycorrhizal associations; Diseases caused by mushrooms,
    etc. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
    Puccinia graminis (Rust fungi)
    General features; Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Somatic structure
    (septed hyphae, monokaryotic and dikaryotic). Reproduction: Spore formation, Occurs through five stages
    (Polymorphic stage-Stage 0-Pycnidiospore, Stage i-Aceidiospores, Stage ii-Uredospores, Stage iiiTeleutospores, Stage iv-Basidiospores), Heteroecious (Two host–Wheat and Barberry). In Wheat: Uredial
    stage (Formation, structure and germination of uredospore), Teleuto stage (Formation, structure and
    germination of teleutospore), Basidiospore stage (Formation, and germination of basidiospore). In Barberry:
    Pycnidial stage (formation of pycniospores, spermatization-takes part in sexual reproduction) and Aecidial
    stage (Formation, structure and germination of aecidiospores). Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation
    (Alternation of generation). Economic importance: “Black rust of wheat”, Symptoms of disease; Rust disease
    in different cereals; Control measure (Chemical and Agriculture
    method) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
    Alternaria (Fungi imperfecti)
    General features; Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Somatic structure.
    Reproduction: Asexual reproduction (Conidia formation). Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation. Economic
    importance: ‘Early blight of potato’; Symptoms of diseases; Other diseases caused by different species of
    Alternaria. eg. A. solani cause ‘Early blight‘diseases in potato and members of Solanaceae, A. brassicae A.
    brassicicola cause’ leaf spot disease’ in Crucifers, etc.; Control measure (Chemical, Biological and Agriculture
    practice) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
  4. Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM)
    Introduction of mycorhiza: Types of mycorrhiza (a. Ectomycorrhiza [Ectotrophic] and b. Endomycorrhiza
    [Endotrophic]).
    VAM (Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae): Vesciular (vesicle–storage organs or as resting spores) and
    Arbuscules (dichotomously branched, complex haustoria) containing intercellular hyphae. Classification
    (Class–Zygomycetes, Order–Mucorales, Family–Endogonaceae, Genus: Gloius, Glomerulus, Gigaspora,
    Sclerocystis, etc.). Economic importance: Biofertilizers………………………………………………………………………1
  5. Economic importance of fungi:
    Useful activities: Destruction of organic waste; Formation of humus; Release of carbon dioxide; Role of fungi
    in medicine (a. Antibiotics: Pencilliim, Streptomycin, etc., b. Ergot: Claviceps purpurea used in veterinary and
    human medicine, c. Vitamines: vitamin B, vitamin D, Biotin, Riboflavin, Biotin, Thiamine etc., d. Therapeutic
    uses: Extract of Aspergillus niger and Sacchaaromyces cerevisiae have proved in extreme cases of maligacy, e.
    Alcohol fermentation, f. Steroids.); Role of fungi in Industry (Baking, Brewing, Cheese industry, Preparation
    of organic acids [Oxalic acids, Citric acid, Gluconic acid, Gallic acid]); Fungi as food (Mushroom, morels, and
    yeast); Fungal enzyme (Invertase, Amylase, Pertinose); Mycorrhizae (VAM); Growth hormones (Giberrelin);
    Use of fungi in Bio–assays; Fungi as test organism.(eg Neurospora). Harmful effects: Plant diseases (eg. Rust
    disease, Smut disease, Blight disease, etc.); Destruction of wood; Destruction of utensils and other products4th year B.Sc. syallabus-2073 revised Page 8
    (eg electrical equipment, Textiles, papers, leather, optical instrument, etc.; Food spoilage (Dairy product,
    Fruits, Canning products, Bakery products, Meat, Vegetable, etc); Mycoses; Poisonous
    Mushroom …………………………………………………………………..1

Unit 3.B. Lichens

  1. Introduction of Lichens: General features; Mode of nutrition–biotrophic; Distribution; Habit and Habitat
    (Saxicolous, Corticolous, Terricolous)… …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
  2. Lichen thallus: i. Crustose lichen, ii. Foliose lichen, iii. Fruiticose lichen. Classification: On the basis of (i)
    nature of the fungal element and (ii) kind of the frutification.
    Thallus on the basis of the nature of the fungal element: I. Ascolichen (fungal component is an Ascomycete),
    Sub divided into two according to ascocarp– (a) Gymnocarpeae (ascocarp-an apothecium type) (b)
    Pyrenocarpeae (ascocarp-perithecium type) eg. Parmelia, Physcia, Usnea, Cladonia, Graphis, Verrucaria, etc.
    II. Basidiolichen/Hymenolichen (fungal component is a Basidiomycetes) eg. Cora, Rhipidonema.
    Thallus on the basis of the fruitification (structure of asci and ascocarps): I. Hymeno-ascolichens with
    unitunicate asci paraphyses in apothecia; II. Loculo-ascolichens with bitunicate asci in apothecia .or
    hysterothecia; III. Loculo-ascolichens with bitunicate asci in pseudothecia; IV. Deuterolichens (The lichenes
    imperfecti): mostly sterile lichens that produce no spores………………………………………………………………….. 1
  3. Structure of lichen thallus: Anatomy and Morphology.
    On the basis of internal structure of thallus, two groups: (i) Structure of Homoiomerous Lichen thallus, (ii)
    Structure of Heteromerous Lichen thallus. Structure associated with the lichen thallus: (i) Breathing pores (ii)
    Cyphellae (iii) Cephellae (iv) Cephalodia (v) Isidia. Nutrition…………………………………………………………….1
  4. Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction (Fragmentation and propagules (i) Soredia (ii) Isidia);
    Reproduction of Algal component (phycobiont): (i) Cell division (ii) Hormogonia (iii) Akinetes (iv) Heterocysts;
    Reproduction of fungal component (mycobiont): (i) Asexual reproduction (sporulation) (ii) Sexual
    reproduction: Oogamous type (Male reproductive organ spermogonium; Female reproductive organ
    carpogonium; Fertilization; Post-plasmogamy changes; Fruiting body: (i) apothecia (ii)
    Perithecia ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
  5. Economic importance: Useful activities: Sources of food; Source of medicines; Source for dyes; For
  6. perfume; For minerals; For acid extraction; Indicators of air pollution; Soil formation; As nitrogen fixers; For
  7. ecological importance. Harmful effects: Source of fire; Serious damage to the windows; Poisonous;
  8. Destruction of mosses……………

Unit 4. Kingdom Plantae: Algae

  1. General features; Cell structure; Distribution (occurrence and habitat: phytoplanktons,
    endophytes, symbionts, epiphytes, parasites)…………………………………………………………. 2
  2. Classification up to class (Fritsch 1944)……………………………………………………………… 2
  3. Range of thallus (Motile Unicellular form; Motile colonial form; Non-motile Unicellular form;
    Non-motile colonial form; Palmelloid form; Filamentous form; Heterotrichous form (Erect
    system and Prostrate system); Thalloid form; Siphoneous form; Special
    form)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
  4. Reproductive structures: Asexual reproductive structures: Spores–nonmotile (Akinetes;
    Hormogonia; Hormospores; Endospores; Exospores; Aplanospores; Hypnospores; tetraspores;
    monospores; Palmella stage); Motile spores: Zoospores. Sexual reproductive structures:
    Gametes (isogamy, anisogamy, oogamy); Alternation of generation in algae (Haplont, Diplont,
    Isomorphic, Heteromorphic) …………………………………………………………………………….3
    Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyceae)
    Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus); Occurrence and distribution;
    Organization of the thallus; Cell structure; Reproduction: Asexual reproduction (Zoospore
    formation; Aplanospore formation; Palmelloid stage), Sexual reproduction: Isogamy; Anisogamy;
    Oogamy; Origin of sex. Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation………………………………………….1
    Chara (Chlorophyceae)
    Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus); Occurrence and distribution;
    Organization of the thallus: The plant body (nodes and internodes); Branches of limited growth;
    Branches of unlimited growth; Stipules. Cell structure; Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction
    (Amylum stars, Tubers/bulbils, Protonema). Sexual reproduction: Oogamy (Male reproductive organglobules; Structure and development of globule; Female reproductive organ-nucule; Structure and
    development of nucule; Fertilization; Structure of oospore; Germination of oospore). Life cycle:
    Diagrammatic representation …………………………………………………………………………

Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae),
Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus); Occurrence and distribution;
Structure of the thallus; Cell structure. Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction (Fragmentation),
Asexual reproduction (Spores: Synzoospore [formation, structure and germination], Aplanospore
formation, akinetes, Hypnospores or cysts formation); Sexual reproduction: Oogamy (Position of sex
organs; Structure and development of Antheridia; Structure and development of oogonia;
Fertilization; Germination of oospore); Alternation of generation. Position of Vaucheria. Life cycle:
Diagrammatic representation ……………………………………………… 2
Navicula (Bacillariophyceae)
Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus); Occurrence and distribution; Cell
structure: Shape, made up of two halves (epitheca, hypotheca); Girdle and valve view;
Reproduction: Asexual reproduction (Cell division and Auxospores); Sexual reproduction:
Conjugation. Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation…………………………………………………………… 1
Fucus (Phaeophyceae)
Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus); Occurrence and distribution;
Organization of the thallus (Holdfast, Stipe, Frond); Internal structure of the thallus
(Meristoderm, Cortex or Storage tissue, Medulla). Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction
(Fragmentation); Sexual reproduction: Oogamous type (Structure and development of conceptacle;
Male reproductive organ-antheridia; Development of antheridia; Female reproductive organoogonium; Development of oogonium; Fertilization; Post fertilization; Formation of new thallus).
Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation……………………………………………………………………………3
Batrachospermum (Rhodophyceae)
Systematic position (Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus); Occurrence and distribution;
Organization of the thallus: Branches of limited and unlimited growth; Cell structure.
Reproduction: Sexual reproduction: Oogamous type (Male reproductive organ-spematium;
Development of antheridium; Female reproductive organ-capogonium; Development of
carpogonium; Fertilization; Post fertilization changes; Formation of carposporangia; Carpospores;
and Cystocarp; Formation of new thallus); Alternation of generation. Life cycle: Diagrammatic
representation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Economic importance of Algae: Useful activities: Algae constitute the link of food chain; Useful in fish
culture; Sewage treatment plant; As food; As fodder; As fertilizer; As medicine; In industries (Algin, Agar,
cosmetics, paints, etc); Diatomaceae earth; Soil fertility; Algae and limestone formation; Parasitic algae.
Harmful effects: Ship fouling; Water blooms………………………………………………………………………………….

Unit 4B. Bryophyta

  1. Characteristics and distribution of bryophytes (Distribution, Habit and habitat, morphology of
    gametophytes, Vegetative reproduction; Structure of sex organs (development of jacketed sex organs,
    presence of motile male gametes and necessity of water for fertilization); Fertilization and development
    of embryo/ sporophytes (Concept of embryophyta); Generalized life cycle of bryophytes (alternation of
    generations). ……………………………………………………………………….. 2
  2. Classification of bryophytes: General basis of bryophyte classification; Outline classification Rothmaler
    (1951); General characteristics of different groups (upto classes) …………………………………………………. 1
  3. Origin and evolution of bryophytes (Progressive evolution theory (Algal origin); Regressive evolution
    theory (Pteridophyte origin); Bryophytes as connecting link between algae and
    pteridophytes; ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    Riccia (Hepaticopsida)
    Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Morphology; Internal structure
    of thallus; Growth; Vegetative reproduction Sexual reproduction: Distribution of sex organs;
    Structure of antheridium and structure of archegonium; Fertilization;……………………………….1
    Development and structure of sporophyte; Spore dispersal and germination; Formation of
    gametophytes; Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation……………………………………………….. 1
    Pellia (Hepaticopsida)
    Systematic position; Distribution and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Morphology of the
    gametophyte; Internal structure of thallus; Growth; Vegetative reproduction; Sexual reproduction
    (Distribution of sex organs; Structure of antheridium and structure of archegonium;
    Fertilization;……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
    Development and structure of sporophyte; Spore dispersal and germination; Formation of
    gametophytes; Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation……………………………………………………….. 1
    Anthoceros (Anthocerotopsida)
    Systematic position; Distribution and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Morphology of the
    gametophyte; Internal structure of thallus; Growth; Vegetative reproduction; Sexual reproduction
    (Distribution of sex organs; Structure of antheridium and archegonium; Fertilization;)
    ………………………………………………………………………….…………………………….1
    Development and structure of sporophyte; Spore dispersal and germination; Formation of
    gametophytes; Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation… ………………………………………………………1
    Polytrichum (Bryopsida)
    Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Morphology; Internal structure
    (axis and leaves)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    Structure of sex organs; Development of sporophyte………………………………………………………………………….1
    Structure of sporophyte; Spore dispersal; Germination. Life cycle: Diagrammatic
    representation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
  4. Sterilization of sporogenous tissue in bryophytes (with reference to sporophytes in Riccia, Marchantia,
    Pellia, Antheceros and Funaria/Polytrichum) ……………………………………………………………………………….. 1
  5. Economic importance of bryophytes: Useful activities: As indicator species; As nitrogen fixation; As
    Erosion control; Bio-indicators of heavy metals in air pollution; Treatment of Waste; Moss Gardens;
    Moss Industry (Fuel, Harvesting peat and other mosses, Household uses; Packing); Medical Uses; Food
    Sources; etc. Harmful effects: Skin allergy; Source of fire; Poisonous liverworts

Unit 4C. Pteridophyta

  1. Characteristics and distribution of pteridophytes (General distribution (habitat); Pteridophytes as plants
    having independent gametophytes and sporophytes; Pteridophytes as land plants; Pteridophytes as
    vascular plants; General morphology of the sporophyte (root, stem, leaves, sporophylls); Reproduction in
    pteridophytes (vegetative, asexual and sexual); Sporangia and spores; Gametophytes and sex organs;
    Fertilization, development of embryo)………………………………………… 1
  2. Classification of pteridophytes upto divisions (General basis of pteridophyte classification; Outline
    classification (Reimers, 1954); General characteristics of different groups [upto
    classes]) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
  3. Origin and evolution of pteridophytes
     Theories on algal and bryophytic origin of pteridophytes………………………………………………………… 1
     General evolutionary trends in pteridophytes: Telome theory, Evolution of roots; Evolution of stem
    (morphology, stele); Evolution of leaves (microphylls, scale leaves, megaphylls); Evolution of
    sporophylls; Evolution of gametophytes (Progressive reduction in size of
    gametophytes)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
    Lycoposida (Lycopodium sensu lato)
    General characteristic features of Lycopsida. Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or
    distribution of Lycopodium), morphology ……………………………………………………………………………1
    Internal structure of root, stem and leaves; Structure of sporophylls based on two subgenera: Urostachya,
    Rhopalostachya………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
    Structure of sporangia; Spore dispersal; Types of gametophyte……………………………………………………………1
    Structure of sex organs (antheridia, archegonia); Fertilization and development of sporophyte. Life cycle:
    Diagrammatic representation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    Lycoposida (Selaginella)
    Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution); Morphology (Sporophyte);
    Internal structure of rhizophore, root, stem, leaves and ligule………………………………………………….1
    Structure of strobilus (Heterosporous); Structure of sporangia; Spore dispersal;… ……………..1
    Structure of gametophyte; Structure of sex organs (antheridia, archegonia); Fertilization and
    development of sporophyte. Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation………………………….. 1
    Sphenopsida (Equisetum)
    General characteristic features of Sphenopsida. Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or
    distribution of Equisetum); Morphology (Sporophyte)………………………………………………….1
    Internal structure of roots, rhizome and stem; Structure of strobilus; Structure of sporangia; Spore
    dispersal ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Structure of gametophyte; Structure of sex organs (antheridia, archegonia); Fertilization and
development of sporophyte. Life cycle: Diagrammatic representation……………………………… 1
Pteropsida (Marsilea)
General characteristic features of Pteropsida. Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or
distribution of Marsilea); Morphology (Sporophyte); Internal structure of rhizome, stem and
leaves………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Structure of sporocarp; Structure of sporangia; Dehiscence of sporocarp……………………………1
Structure of gametophytes; Structure of sex organs (antheridia, archegonia); Fertilization and
development of sporophyte…………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Pteropsida (Pteris)
Systematic position; Habit and habitat (occurrence or distribution of Pteris); Morphology
(Sporophyte); Internal structure of rhizome, pinnule and petiole ……………………………………… 1
Structure of sorus, sporangia; spore dispersal and germination; Structure of gametophyte, structure of
sex organs; Embryo and development of sporophyte ………………………………………………………. 1

  1. Stelar system and its evolution in pteridophytes (with reference to Lycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetum,
    Marsilea and Pteris)………………………………………….1
  2. Heterospory and evolution of seed habit; Alternation of generations in pteridophyt …………………….1
  3. Economic importance of pteridophytes: Useful activities: Ornamental value; Food value; Medicinal;
    Biofertilizers; Environmental aspects; Horticultural uses; Handicrafts; Dye; Photography; Forensic
    investigation; etc. Harmful effects: Toxic to livestock; Spore as source of allergy; Water pollution;

Unit 4.D. Gymnosperms

  1. General characteristics of Gymnosperms: Introduction; Distribution; Morphology (Habit, stem,
    leaf, cone, root). …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
  2. Classification of Gymnosperm: History of classification (Robert Brown (1827); J.D. Hooker
    (1857); Eichler (1883); Coulter and Chamberlain (1917); Birbal Sahni (1920); Chamberlain
    (1934); Arnold (1948); Takhtajan (1950); Pant(1957); Raizada and Sahni (1960); Andrews
    (1961); Sporne (1965); Takhtajan, Cronquist and Zimmermann (1966); Gangulee (1968))
    Classification by Sporne (1965) to be followed………………………………………………………………..2
  3. Origin and Evolution of Gymnosperm: (Evolutionary history of gymnosperms; Heterospory;
    Gametophytes and ovule………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
    Cycadopsida (Cycas)
    General features of Cycadopsida. Systematic position of Cycas: Morphology (habit, stem, leaf,
    cones, root); Internal structure of stem …………………………………………………………………………..1
    Internal structure of rachis, leaflet, root and coralloid root………………………………………………………………….1
    Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction (Buds or Bulbil); Sexual reproduction: Male cone or
    strobilus; Microsporophyll (Development of microsporangia and microspores; Germination of the
    microspores); Female cone or strobilus; Megasporophyll (Megaspore and development of female
    gametophyte; Development of archegonia)……………………………………………………………………………. 1
    Pollination; Fertilization; Development of embryo; Formation of seed; Germination of the
    seed ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1
    Coniferopsida (Pinus)
    General features of Coniferopsida. Systematic position of Pinus: Morphology (Habit, branches of
    limited and unlimited growth, leaves (Scale and foliage) cones, root); Internal structure of
    root………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
    Internal structure of stem and leaf. Reproduction: Development of microsporangium and microspores;
    Development of the megasporangium (Ovule) ………………………………1
    Pollination; Development of male and female gametophyte; Development of archegonium; Fertilization;
    Development of embryo; Formation of Seed; Dispersal and germination of the seed……………………………..
    Gnetopsida (Ephedra)
    General features of Gnetopsida. Systematic position of Ephedra: Morphology; Internal structure of
    stem. Reproduction: Male cone (Microsporogenesis); Female cone
    (Megasprogenesis). …………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
    Development of the male gametophyte; Development of the female gametophyte and
    archegonium; Pollination; Fertilization; Development of embryo; Formation of Seed; Dispersal and
    germination of the seed………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
  4. Distribution of Gymnosperm in Nepal: Total taxa in Nepal (Family, Genus and Species); Distribution
    pattern (Ecological zones/Bioclimatic zone) ……………………. 1
  5. Economic Importance of Gymnosperm: Useful activities: Medicinal value; Timber; Resin and oils; Craft
    paper; Food; Fuel; Ornamental; Industrial uses; etc. Harmful effects: Soil acidity; Allelopathic effects;
    Forest fire; Harmful to human health; etc……………………………………………………………………….1

Unit 4F. Paleobotany

  1. Introduction: History and scope of Paleobotany …………………………………………………………………………..1
  2. Origin of and evolution of life on earth……………………………………………………………………………………… 2
  3. General account of the geological eras and periods with examples…………………………………………….1
  4. Mode of fossil formation: Molecule by molecule replacement theory; Infiltration
    theory ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
  5. Type of fossils: Compression; Impression; Incrustation; Petrification (Mineralized plants); Compactions
    (Mummified plants); Amber………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2
  6. Morphology and anatomy of Rhynia: Morphology (Occurrence and External feature); Anatomy of
    Rhynia: (aerial axis; sporangium)…………………………………………………………………………………………………..